Glossary A - E





Acute services are general hospital services which treat patients for a certain condition for a short time.


Accession countries to the European Union (eastern European countries) Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

A10 nationals

Eastern European nationals (A8 = Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia (1 May 2004),A2 = Bulgaria and Romania (1 January 2007).


Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

A & E

Accident and Emergency department in a hospital. 


CACI social marketing segmentation groupings.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Adult Dental Health Survey


A term used to describe when someone requires a stay in hospital

Admitted Patient Care Commissioning Dataset


The dataset that contains all the demographic and clinical information about patients admitted to hospital.


Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) that involves the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart.

Affordable Housing

Refers to particular products outside the main housing market.

Affordable housing includes social rented, affordable rented and intermediate housing, provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market.

Affordable housing should meet the needs of eligible households, including availability at a cost low enough for them to afford, determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices. And it should include provision for the home to remain at an affordable price for future eligible households or, if these restrictions are lifted, for the subsidy to be recycled for alternative affordable housing provision.93

Affordable housing is provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Eligibility is determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices.

Affordable housing should include provisions to remain at an affordable price for future eligible households or for the subsidy to be recycled for alternative affordable housing provision.


Alpha fetoprotein

Alcohol related Attributable Crimes


These figures are estimates based on applying a national alcohol-related proportion to total crime figures so they may simply indicate high crime figures rather than crimes where alcohol actually was a factor.

Annual Extract of Deaths


Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Public Health Network PH Intelligence team’s mortality data for Peterborough and Cambridgeshire.


Association of Public Health Observatories.


Adult Social Care


Autistic Spectrum Disorder.


Alcohol Treatment Requirements

Audit Commission

The Audit Commission is an independent body responsible for ensuring that public money is used economically, efficiently and effectively.


British National Formulary.

Baby Boomer

Babies born between 1946 and 1964.


British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry.

Binge Drinkers

Binge drinking is defined as “consuming 8 or more units on a single occasion for men and 6 or more units for women”.

BCS British Crime Survey

The British Crime Survey is a very important source

of information about levels of crime and public attitudes to crime and other Home Office issues. The results play an important role in informing Home Office policy.


By comparing health systems across a range of indicators you can highlight areas where improvements may be needed.

BME Groups

Black and Minority Ethnic Groups.


Body Mass Index.


Comprehensive Area Assessment


Coronary Artery Bypass Graft


Common Assessment Framework.


Child and Adolescent Mental Health


Cambridgeshire County Council Research Group


Clinical Commissioning Group


Compendium of Clinical and Health Indicators


Clostridium Difficile Associated Disease


A national survey of the population of the UK undertaken every ten years.


Chief Operating Officer


Cystic Fibrosis.


Coronary Heart Disease

Child Protection Plan


If a child's name is added to the child protection register, a child protection plan is drawn up to make sure the child is kept safe and to help the family.

Child Protection Register


The child protection register is a confidential list of children and young people in an area that are believed to be in need of protection.


Child and Maternal Health Observatory.


Congenital Hypothyroidism.


Communities and Local Government.


Carbon Monoxide.


Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust.


Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships - The 1998 Crime and Disorder Act established partnerships between the police, local authorities, probation service, health authorities, the voluntary sector, and local residents and businesses. These partnerships are working to reduce crime and disorder.


Cambridgeshire Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service.


Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy

Circulatory Disease

Diseases of the circulatory (blood) system including heart disease and stroke.


Chronic Kidney Disease

Commissioning a patient-led NHS


This document builds on the NHS Improvement Plan and Creating a Patient-Led NHS. Its focus is on creating a step-change in the way services are commissioned by front-line staff, to reflect patient choices. Effective commissioning is a pre-requisite for making these choices real. It does so in the overall context of improving the health of the whole population.

Commissioning Framework for Health and Well Being


A DH framework for commissioners of services to enable improvement in the health, well being and independence of the population living in an area.  This document described JSNAs.

Community Care Act

National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Core assessment Children’s


An in-depth assessment which addresses the central or most important aspects of the needs of a child and the capacity of his or her parents or caregivers to respond appropriately to these needs within the wider family

and community context.



In statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables.


Where statutory organisations share physical boundaries.


Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Local Resilience Forum


Community Psychiatric Nurses.


Chorionic Villus Sampling.


Coronary artery bypass graft.


Clinical Commissioning Group.


Cambridgeshire Clinical Priorities Forum


Coronary heart disease.


Cambridgeshire Joint Prescribing Group.

Clinician/Clinical Staff

A fully trained, qualified health professional - doctor, nurse, therapist, technician, etc.


Chief Medical Officer.

Community Care

Health and social care provided by healthcare and social care professionals, usually outside hospital and often in the patient’s own homes.

Confidence Intervals (CI)

These provide a measure of assurance that a particular value lies within a defined range.  This allows us to take account of chance variation.  In general 95% confidence limits are used and indicate the range in which we are 95% sure that the true value lies. Where a value, such as a death rate, and its confidence intervals lie outside the value we are comparing against we can state that there is a statistically significant difference in the rates.  Some of the numbers in this report are quite small in terms of population and we may be looking at small numbers of health related events - in this case confidence intervals are likely to be wide and we should interpret the data carefully.


Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Public Health Network.


Care Quality Commission.  The Care Quality Commission is the independent regulator of health and social care in England.  Our aim is to make sure better care is provided for everyone, whether that’s in hospital, in care homes, in people’s own homes, or elsewhere.


It regulates health and adult social care services, whether provided by the NHS, local authorities, private companies or voluntary organisations.  It also protects the rights of people detained under the Mental Health Act.


Drug and Alcohol Action Teams


Directly Age Standardised Rate – this allows the comparison of incidence rates between populations of differing age and sex structure. Most standardisation is done to the European Standard Population. Usually

rates are expressed per 100,000. These rates are directly comparable relative to each other.


Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.


Department of Environment and Climate Change.


Every ten years.


The basic characteristics of the population, such as age, sex, geographic distribution and mobility.


Having teeth.



Department of Health Tobacco Control National Support Team

Diastolic blood pressure


Blood pressure (strictly speaking: vascular pressure) refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. The diastolic arterial pressure is the lowest pressure (at the resting phase of the cardiac



Drug Interventions Programme.

Direct Payments

Direct payments create more flexibility in the provision of social services. Giving money in place of social care services means people have greater choice of provider for their care.


Diseased, Missing, Filled Teeth


Designed Public Places Order.


Dental Services Division.


Directly Standardised Rate – see DASR


Department of Works and Pensions.


Dentist with a Specialist Interest

Deprivation Indices

The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) calculated the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2000.  It comprises of six domains of deprivation, an overall index of multiple deprivation and a supplementary Child Poverty Index.  The six domains measured are income, employment, health deprivation and disability, education skills and training, housing and geographical access to services.  The IMD is available at two levels, local authority district (LAD) and ward (administrative boundaries as at April 1998).

Directly Age-Standardised Rates (DASR)

This allows comparison of incidence rates between populations of differing age and sex structure.  The Compendium uses the European Standard Population to derive age-standardised rates, usually expressed as a rate per 100,000 population.  Such rates are directly comparable relative to each other, but it is difficult to work backwards from the rate to the actual number (deaths, activity).  In most cases the actual number is shown for information.

DoH or DH

Department of Health.


Directors of Public Health.


English as an Additional Language

Early Learning Goals


Foundation stage curriculum (3 to 5 years) has 6 areas of learning. Each area of learning has a set of related early learning goals.


Employment, Education or Training

Electoral ward


An electoral ward is a division of an administrative area used to elect councillors to serve on councils of the administrative areas.


East of England.


Emergency Planning.


Eastern Region Public Health Observatory


Is a mathematical function used to model variables when a constant change in the variable gives the same proportional change. It is the preferred method for adding trends to health data where 0 is an unlikely end point (eg mortality rates).

Extra Care Housing

New forms of sheltered housing and retirement housing have been pioneered in recent years, to cater for older people who are becoming frail and less able to do things for themselves.

Extra Care Housing is housing designed with the needs of frailer older people in mind, with varying levels of care and support available on site. People who live in Extra Care Housing have their own self-contained homes, their own front doors and a legal right to occupy the property. Extra Care Housing is also known as very sheltered housing, assisted living, or simply as 'housing with care'.

It comes in many built forms, including blocks of flats, bungalow estates and retirement villages. It is a popular choice among older people because it can sometimes provide an alternative to a care home.

In addition to the communal facilities often found in sheltered housing such as a residents' lounge, guest suite, laundry etc. Extra Care often includes a restaurant or dining room, health and fitness facilities, hobby rooms and even computer rooms. Domestic support and personal care are available, usually provided by on-site staff.

Properties can be rented, owned or part owned/part rented. There is an increasing amount of Extra Care Housing in most areas and most providers set eligibility criteria which prospective residents have to meet.



Enumeration District

Enumeration districts are 1991 census output areas.  They consist of around 200 households, and in Cambridgeshire the populations of enumeration districts range from c250 to over 500.